Time Orientation and Culture Assignment
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Time Orientation and Culture Assignment
Time is a finite concept; we measure it in seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, and years or by cycles of the moon and tides, the weather, and the movement of planets and stars in t he solar system. Time is also a form of
nonverbal communication that is structured formall y and informally by a culture. Chronemics is the study of how a culture structures and uses time, including how individuals perceive, structure, emphasize, and respond to time,
as wel l as how they interpret messages about time. Though time is a structured and formalized en tity within and across cultures now, it was not always this way. For example, standard time in the United States did not
commence until the spread of railroads as a popular form of hu man transportation in the mid- 1800s made it necessary to establish cultural agreement about exact time. Trains were the f irst method of transportation that could
move passengers from place to place in a relatively short amount of time. Unless 2 p.m. was the same time for every station, it would be difficu lt for passengers to arrive at the station on time and board the trains before
departure. Issu es such as the importance of punctuality, the timing and duration of business and social visi ts, and the amount of time you should wait for someone who is late all vary from culture to culture. For example,
arriving five minutes late for a business appointment in the United St ates would usually require a brief apology, but it may not be even be noticed in another cou ntry. When you communicate with people of different cultures,
variations in how you structure a nd use time can cause people to take offense when none was intended. However, time can a lso be used to send intentional messages to another person, and the person who has more p ower or
influence in the interaction typically uses it for that purpose. For example, former U.S. President Harry Truman reportedly once kept a newspaper editor waiting for an appoi ntment for more than 45 minutes. Finally, the editor
asked the president’s aide to check wit h the president about the long wait. Truman is said to have replied that when he had been a junior senator, the editor had kept him waiting for an hour and a half, so, as far as Truman was
concerned, the editor still had “45 minutes to go” (Sowell, 1994). Since Truman was pr esident, and had more power than he did as a junior senator, he chose to and was permitte d to use time in this intentional way. President
Truman also intentionally emphasized the p ower distance between himself and the reporter using time as an interpersonal communica tion message. Time can, of course, be used to send a positive message as well— arriving
very early for a presentation or submitting a project early can indicate great intere st. Additionally, consider the length of time you may take to text a friend back. While you m ay simply view other activities as more important than
texting, this may negatively impact your friend’s perception of you. Research shows that this is indeed true with instructors— students tend to more positively perceive those professors who respond quickly to their e- mails
(Tatum, Martin, & Kemper, 2018).
Keith Levit Photography/Thinkstock
Though time is a finite concept, it is a form of nonverbal communication that differs across cultures. Chronemics is the study of how cultures structure and use time.
Hall (1959) introduced one important relationship between time and culture when he desc ribed monochronic and polychronic systems of time. In monochronic time system cultures, members prefer to attend to or schedule one
task at a time. Time is viewed as a tangible an d valuable item that can be gained or lost, and individuals adhere to formal time, which is r egulated by a clock. Sayings such as “Time is money” and “I’m wasting time” are
expression s of a monochronic time system. In the United States, for example, people tend to be punctu al about appointments, to focus on one thing at a time, and to get to the point quickly in con versation, even interrupting
others, if necessary, to move the conversation along. Such beha viors reflect an emphasis on concentration, commitment to a task, promptness, and compar tmentalization, which are characteristic of a monochronic time system
culture. In contrast, individuals in polychronic time system cultures prefer to focus on and schedule multiple tasks at once. Time, according to this system, is ever changing and flexible and is b ased more on events rather than
actual time. For example, Latin American and Mediterrane an countries take much more time to establish a point in a conversation and to establish a r elationship with someone. People in these cultures may carry on more than
one conversati on at a time (e.g., managing multiple issues with clients during a meeting or texting your fri end and talking face-to- face with your wife) and often consider it offensive to interrupt others when they are speak ing
(Novinger, 2001). Such characteristics reflect a culture’s emphasis on commitment duri ng interactions and interpersonal relationships and on acceptance of interruptions.
Monochronic and polychronic time are not just a product of dominant cultures; there can b e differences between dominant and co- cultures and also between contexts. For example, though the United States as a whole tends to
be a monochronic time system culture, residents of regions such as the South and Califor nia have a looser, more polychronic time system. In contrast, those from the Northeast typi cally adhere to a more monochronic time
system. In addition, business and organizational c ontexts are more likely to be monochronic, and personal relationship contexts tend more to ward polychronic time (Hall, 1990). You can determine your own temporal orientation
usin g Ballard and Seibold’s (2000) scale, provided in the Self-Test feature.
Time Orientation and Culture Assignment
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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Time Orientation and Culture Assignment