SOT 1999 Development of New Therapeutics
Order ID 53003233773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
SOT 1999 Development of New Therapeutics
Research is also necessary to reduce risk for workers who might be exposed to hazardous levels of a material in the workplace day in and day out. Animal studies can test for risk before human are exposed to dangerous situations, or help establish which mechanisms result in damage when consequences in humans are suspected. The results of these toxicity screens can be used to restrict or eliminate occupational contact with chemicals and thus protect the health of workers. For example, research in the fast-moving semiconductor industry identifies many novel chemicals, including unusual metal compounds created for their reactive properties. Animal studies are necessary in order to make informed decisions about worker protection on the production line where these compounds would be used.
In the regulatory world, the results of whole animal testing are often used to disallow or tightly regulate the amount of chemical released from facilities that treat, store or dispose of hazardous waste. Decisions must also be made about environmental remediation of possible contaminants. Human risk and hazard criteria for what constitutes a safe level of exposure to a possible environmental hazard are derived from in vitro and animal studies. Toxicologists establish the relationship between exposures received by animals and those received by humans in order to interpret test results and predict risk. This in turn helps regulatory agencies to prioritize funding for environmental cleanup.
Accurate assessment of risk from environmental exposure is difficult from laboratory models alone. Such experiments control and simplify variables. For example, in the laboratory a known dose of chemical may be administered to test animals in a liquid solution. This favors maximal absorption of the chemical. However, data from an experiment conducted in this manner may not accurately reflect how the chemical is absorbed into the body from contaminated soil. The impact of soil on the rate of absorption might be predicted from models that mimic conditions in the digestive system, but these models must be based on results obtained from living organisms. The matter is further complicated because some chemicals (such as arsenic) exist in multiple forms in the environment. Testing absorption rates independently for each form of arsenic would only produce part of the picture. Mathematical and computer models based on the predicted relationship must be validated by tests in animals and humans.
The whole animal model, using species such as rats and miniature swine, is essential to equitably allocate limited resources to environmental remediation, just as in other decisions about human health and environmental protection.
Basic Research—Toxicology research often leads to breakthroughs in our understanding of disease and its treatment as well as in the development of new therapeutics. By studying how chemicals interact with living systems, toxicologists and other scientists unravel some of the fascinating mysteries of how living organisms normally function. For example, in the study of cancer-causing products created by ordinary combustion, such as barbecuing meat or burning plastics, toxicology research has shown that some of these (certain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated dioxins) will combine with proteins called aryl hydrocarbon receptors that are found inside our cells. This combination can move into the cell nucleus, attach to DNA and influence the behavior of DNA and expression of genes. Further basic research in this area has shown that these protein receptors play an essential role in the normal development of mammalian cells. Therefore, research in toxicology has led to a better understanding of normal gene function.
The relationship of plants, animals and humans to the environment is a dynamic one, with normal physiological processes that allow living systems to process chemicals in constant balance with the world. Too little is known about many of these fundamental processes. The effects of disturbing this balance, for example by increasing levels of one substance, go largely unknown until some nonspecific, visible measure of toxicity becomes apparent. When predatory bird populations began decreasing in the early 1970’s, the source of the problem was not obvious. Ultimately scientists discovered that hatching failure was due to thinning of eggshells, which turned out to be a consequence of concentration of DDT in organisms high on the food chain. DDT interfered with eggshell production.
The use of animal models allows toxicologists to develop fundamental knowledge necessary to the understanding of chemical toxicity. This under- standing can be translated into protection of humans, animals, and the environment from toxic levels of natural—as well as man-made—exposures.
SOT Guiding Principles in the Use of Animals in Toxicology 1. The use, care and transportation of animals for training and for toxicological research and testing for the
purpose of protecting human and animal health and the environment must comply with all applicable animal welfare laws.
When scientifically appropriate, alternative procedures that reduce the number of animals used, refine the use of whole animals or replace whole animals (e.g., in vitro models, invertebrate organisms) should be considered.
For research requiring the use of animals, the species should be carefully selected and the number of animals kept to the minimum required to achieve scientifically valid results.
All reasonable steps should be taken to avoid or minimize discomfort, distress or pain of animals.
Appropriate aseptic technique, anesthesia and postoperative analgesia should be provided if a surgical procedure is required. Muscle relaxants or paralytics are not to be used in place of anesthetics.
Care and handling of all animals used for research purposes must be directed by veterinarians or other individuals trained and experienced in the proper care, handling and use of the species being maintained or studied. Veterinary care is to be provided in a timely manner when needed.
Investigators and other personnel shall be qualified and trained appropriately for conducting procedures on living animals, including training in the proper and humane care and use of laboratory animals.
Protocols involving the use of animals are to be reviewed and approved by an institutional animal care and use committee before being initiated. The composition and function of the committee shall be in compliance with applicable animal welfare laws, regulations, guidelines and policies.
Euthanasia shall be conducted according to the most current guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Panel on Euthanasia or similar bodies in different countries.
SOT 1999 Development of New Therapeutics
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
CLICK ON THE LINK HERE: https://gradebasket.com/orders/ordernow
Also, you can place the order at www.collegepaper.us/orders/ordernow / www.phdwriters.us/orders/ordernow
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME] and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!