Review Sex Ratios In The United States
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Review Sex Ratios In The United States
The normal male to female live birth sex ratio ranges from about 1.03 to 1.07. The sex ratio is defined as the ratio of male births to female births. You might expect boy and girl births to be equally likely, but in fact, baby boys are somewhat more common than baby girls.
Higher sex ratios are thought to reflect prenatal sex selection, especially among cultures where sons are prized more heavily than daughters. We will review sex ratios in the United States as a whole, as well as in individual states, to determine whether sex ratios vary significantly among various ethnic and racial groups.
To do this analysis, we will utilize natality data for the United States, provided by the Centers for Disease Control.
In the first part of the assignment, we will look at sex ratios for your home state, over the time period 1995 to 2002, by race. To obtain this information:
Go the CDC Wonder website,
Click on Births under the WONDER Online Databases to bring you to the Natality Information screen
On this screen, click Natality for 1995-2002.
On the following screen, click I Agreeing order to agree to abide by the government rules for data use (primarily, concerning confidentiality).
This will bring us to the Natality, 1995-2002 Request screen.
In the block 1. Organize table layout, group results by year, followed by race, and then gender.
In the block 2. Select maternal residence, choose your state.
You can leave blocks 3 through 6 at their default values (i.e., All).
A new screen will open, with data (births) tabulated by Year, Race, and Gender.
Click Export, click Save, and a text file named Natality, _1995-2002 .txt or something similar will be downloaded onto your computer.
We can now process the downloaded data in Excel.
Load the text file into Excel. This will probably open the Text Import Wizard.
Accept the defaults, and you should have a spreadsheet with the natality data entered.
We will need to edit the data slightly before calculating sex ratios and drawing graphs of the sex ratios. To do this:
Scroll down to the end of the spreadsheet, and delete the rows with the extraneous information about the dataset. (This starts on or about row 203.)
You may also delete the columns with headings Year CodeRace Code, and Gender Code since we will not be using them, however this is not necessary.
Next, sort the data, in order to delete some extraneous rows. Select the remaining columns, choose Data > Sort, then sort by Race in ascending order.
Scroll down to the end of the worksheet, and delete all rows with blanks for Race.
We will now add a new column to the worksheet for ratios.
Go to the first blank column in the worksheet: this column should be immediately to the right of a column labeled Births.
In the first row of this column, type Ratios.
Now, we will calculate different proportions of births, using formulas in excel. It is important to use excel to do the calculation, because it will allow you to quickly complete all of the ratios.
First, calculate the ratio of female births to total births for the American Indian race (female births/total births).
Next, calculate the ratio of male births to total births for the American Indian race (male births/total births).
Finally, calculate the ratio of male births to female births (male births/total births)
If you don’t know how to do this calculation easily in Excel, please check out the screencast, which reviews this.
Once you have completed the first three cells in the ratio column, you can select them and copy them.
Select the remaining cells in the column and paste.
You have now completed calculating all of the ratios, however, you may wish to double check to ensure that the formulas have adjusted for each cell.
Once you have the Ratio column filled out, select that column, then Copy.
With the column still selected you want to select, click Paste Special and then Values. This will convert the formulas you entered to numbers, so they do not change when you do the next sort.
Select all the columns, then Data>Sort>Notesin ascending order. We will be graphing the sex ratios for the years 1995 to 2002, by race.
Feel free to drop the two to four races that have the fewest numbers of births in your state.
Draw a line chart with markers with the year along the X-axis (we are looking at 1995 through 2002) and sex ratio along the Y-axis (with sex ratios typically between 1 and 1.1, though this may vary in your state).
If your version of excel has the Chart Wizard:
In step two of the Chart Wizard, choose the Series tab; in this window you’ll be adding all the information for the various plots.
Under category (X) axis labels, drag your mouse over the cells 1995, 1996… 2002.
For values, draw your mouse over the seven successive sex ratios for the particular racial group you chose; in the name box, enter the racial group; do this for each of the groups you want to display.
Select Next when you have finished with all the racial groups, and you will be brought to the Chart Options screen.
Here, you can customize your graph, with a title and X and Y axis labels (i.e., your state births, year, and sex ratio respectively).
Continue with Next, and finish the graph.
If your version of excel does not have the Chart Wizard, you will need to do some reformatting of your data before you can create a line chart. It is good practice to create a new worksheet in order to preserve your original data.
Your data should mimic the way you want your line chart to look. In this case, you want to create horizontal labels for each of the years (1995 through 2002) and vertical labels for each of the races. It should follow this format:
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Race A Ratio for Race A in Year 1 Ratio for Race A in Year 2 Ratio for Race A in Year 3 Race B Ratio for Race B in Year 1 Ratio for Race B in Year 2 Ratio for Race B in Year 3
After you have reformatted your data, select all of the data, then select Insert, then Line, then Line with Markers.
You should now have a line chart with each race having its own line, the ratios on the Y-axis, and the years on the X-axis.
You may wish to modify the Y-axis by right-clicking on it. Your upper and lower values on the axis should be just above and below your highest and lowest ratio values.
In a Word document, paste the graph you created (or, alternatively, submit your Excel workbook along with the Word document) and describe your findings, making sure to:
Summarize the sex ratios for each of the racial groups.
Explain whether the sex ratios are relatively constant through the 1995 to 2002 period for all of the racial groups or if there are trends?
Explain any racial groups that have noticeably higher or lower sex ratios than other groups.
Explain the conclusions you are drawing from your graph.
In the second part of this assignment, you will undertake some formal statistical procedures with the natality data. We will repeat the previous steps, with some slight modifications.
Return to the CDC Wonder website.
Click on Births under the WONDER Online Databases to get to the Natality Information screen.
Select Natality for 2007 – 2012.
On the next screen, click I Agree in order to agree to abide by the government rules for data use (primarily, concerning confidentiality).
This will bring us to the Natality, 2007-2012 Request screen.
In block 1. Organize table layout, group results by race and then gender (not year).
In block 2. Select maternal residence, choose your state.
You can leave block 3 at its default values (typically, All).
In block 4. Select birth characteristics; select All Years under Year, and 1st child born alive to mother under Live Birth Order.
Blocks 5 and 6 can be left at their default values.
Click Send. A new screen will open, with data (births) tabulated by race and gender.
Click Export, click Save, and a text file named Natality 2007-2012.txt (or something similar) will be downloaded onto your computer.
We have only four racial groups in this dataset: American Indians or Alaska Natives, Asian or Pacific Islanders, Black or African Americans, and Whites.
Using the normal approximation to the binomial distribution (without continuity correction), calculate z statistics for assessing whether the proportion of boys is .51 in each of the 4 racial groups, where n is the total number of births in a particular cohort, p = .51, q = 1 – p = .49, and x is the number of boy births; z = ((x – np) / sqrt(npq) ).
Under the null hypothesis that the proportion of boys should be 0.51, and under the normal approximation to the binomial distribution, the z statistics should have (approximately) standard normal distributions, (mean 0, standard deviation 1). Do any of the z statistics suggest that the proportion of boy births in any particular racial group differs significantly from .51?
Comment on your findings in your written report. Describe whether you think your results would change if we hadn’t limited consideration to the first-born. Assignment should be at least 250-500 words in APA format supported by scholarly sources.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
Review Sex Ratios In The United States
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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