Race and Ethnicity Study Solution Essay
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Race and Ethnicity Study Solution Essay
Race & Ethnicity Journal Submission 3
Films and Readings to be covered:
What the reading/film was about
What you liked about it
What you disliked or found difficult about it.
What other things it made you think about
Asian Americans (film) Part five of the PBS series Asian Americans
Asian American Film
Cultural Hybridity (film)
‘Hijab Online’ from Emma Tarlo’s book Visibly Muslim
Tommy Orange’s novel extract: There There
David Treuer – Rez Life
Flm Urban Rez. – If it is no longer available from the library, and you didn’t make your notes at the time then just skip it.
Extracts from Moira Inghilleri’s book Translation and Migration.
J.G. Herder’s Essay on the Origin of Language (note on the work on Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803)
Herder was living at a time when the European cultural context was a matter of (1) French cultural, linguistic domination in German aristocratic and intellectual circles; (2) of the culture of the lower classes and the ethnic groups was dominated by the despotic, autocratic states within which they existed.
Herder believed that Germany should discover its own literature and language by using and properly valuing the German language and rejecting French models of manners etc.; by valuing the well-spring of its peculiarly national culture, i.e. the oral literature of the people, especially the folk song; by rediscovering its own literary past and in not consigning pre-enlightenment writers to a dust-bin of the dark ages.
In this endeavor the relation between language and society was therefore of special importance to him. This interest was not, however, one which led him, as it led some later German nationalists, to erect for German culture a special place in the cultural history of Europe and the world. It led him, rather, towards an attitude in which all cultures should be seen and evaluated in their own terms and in terms of their time, place and history. While the enlightenment saw itself as the final flower of a long historical process and other periods after the Greek and Roman periods as lapses befogged by superstition and ignorance from which the enlightenment had led Europe.
Herder emphasized the need to value the cultures of all previous periods and all other cultures, including those geographically distant tribes and peoples – far Eastern, American, African. Not that he saw them as ‘equal’ – this would involve the legitimation of comparison itself – but that they were essentially incommensurable. He was a thorough-going cultural relativist. And he saw political regimes which suppressed or oppressed the cultures of their peoples as morally corrupt and ultimately doomed to decay.
Where despotic rule incorporated diverse peoples within a single political authority his view was consistently and strongly expressed that rulers should not attempt either by force or education to impose their own culture on those of their subjects of other ethnic groups. Thus he declared, what today sounds like an early but exact multiculturalist notion: “Truly, just as God tolerates all languages of this world, so too should a ruler tolerate, nay, treasure, the diverse languages of his subject nations” (Barnard, p.58.) He was, for example, especially critical of the Hapsburg, Joseph II’s attempt to Germanize the southern and western Slavs under his domain. (See, Clark, p.338) Furthermore he blames the authoritarian state for the oppression, educational and political, of the diverse ethnic groups and the lower classes (including, under that autocratic rule, the middle classes) within states, and he blames Imperialism, colonialism and slavery as practiced especially by the European powers, for what he saw as the destruction and despoiling of cultures throughout the world: “Europe is free while four continents are enslaved”. Indeed he consistently attacked Euro-centrism in culture and linked it with the unjustifiable intellectual arrogance which accompanied the enslavement and exploitation of non-European peoples.
While not directly addressing himself to political matters, the political ideas embedded in his work and ‘cultural practice’ were rigorously anti-authoritarian, democratic and de-centralist to the extent that he has been seen as close to the anarchist writers of the following century Proudhon and Kropotkin than to most of the social and political theorists of his own times. This is particularly evident in those parts of his work which he was advised not to publish in his lifetime. From an early draft of his Ideas for example we find expressly anarchistic notions such as the following: “The best ruler is the one who contributes as much as he can towards making ruler completely unnecessary for the human race.” Or again: “Governments are bad physicians who treat their patient in such a way that they are always and again needed by them.”(Clark, p. 335) It should be clear from this that such ideas made him very remote indeed from those German Nazi nationalists who were to invoke his name over a century later.
In his own time he political and cultural landscape which he surveyed was one in which the mixing of ethnic cultures was in his view the product of military conquest and domination. In speaking from oppressed cultures within Germany, in Europe and on other continents he also sought a definition of culture in which, say, the classical cultures of Greece and Rome, France, England and Germany took their place humbly besides those of India, China, Africa and South America as examples of the diversity of cultures, each developing and opening out according to their own internal dynamics, and their own historical, social and material conditions.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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