Psychological Frameworks Research Essay
Order ID 53003233773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Psychological Frameworks Research Essay
As you remember from day one in class, we are working with six psychological frameworks, though I am not sure that we are going to get through them all with our online restrictions but we keep trying.. I propose that we move to the Behavioral approach next. This approach has a long history, starting in Russia with the work of Ivan Pavlov and his “discovery” and development of classical conditioning method.
Remember that “conditioning” is simply the technical word for “training or educating” in this approach. Please go on Youtube and watch a presentation on Pavlov and his dogs with classical conditioning. Remember classical conditioning is about the association between objects that is transferred to a neutral stimulus to produce the same result. For example, if you ring a bell every time you feed your dog his/her meal, eventually the dog will associate the bell with feeding.
Later, John Watson recognized the power of this method to shape personality. While many people thought emotions were internal natural experiences, Watson tried to show that, in fact, even emotions could be created with this method of association. He took a year old boy called Little Albert (please look up on Youtube to see his experiment) who had no fears except loud sounds. He loved small furry animals, like mice, rabbits, dogs, and cats.
Watson wanted to show that he could created fear in the little boy that was not there before through classical conditioning. He did this by presenting the boy with a small furry animal and then striking a loud metal tube. The boy cried at the sound. After Watson did this many times–furry animal+loud sound–Albert was conditioned to feel fear at the sight of a furry creature. After a scandal at Johns Hopkins where he worked, Watson left the university to earn millions in advertising. Can you see the connection between classical conditioning and advertising?
Watson was an American and the center of behavioral studies moved to the US. It perfectly expressed the American mindset that environment creates the individual. B.F.Skinner, working at Harvard University, used classical conditioning as a springboard for his development of a method called OPERANT CONDITIONING. In this method, the subject, is part of the process. It’s based on the idea that behavior has consequences. This is the crucial premise of this method.
In other words, behavior elicits a response. If that behavior is rewarded or reinforced, it will persist. If it is punished, it will stop. According to Skinner, there is positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. This simply means that something is added or given for positive reinforcement (I f you get an A on your quiz, I’ll give you a dollar). For negative reinforcement something is taken away (If you don’t get an A on your quiz, you can’t use your phone for a week.). Punishment also has positive (something added) and negative forms (something taken away.
Albert Bandura at Stanford University developed social observation as the next development of behaviorism. In other words, what you observe in your environment shapes your behavior. What you see is what you do. Look at Youtube for his experiments with the Bobo doll where he demonstrated that if kids see violence, they become violent.
Behaviorism is a powerful technique for shaping behavior. Your homework for this segment is to create a behavioral plan for a behavior that you would liuke to change, either your own behavior or that of someone else. Remember, we are working with reinforcement and punishment. So say your goal is to stop smoking. Decide what is going to be your method to stop. Cold turkey? Ok. Decide the starting date.
Throw away your cigarettes and rid the house of ashtrays, etc. or any reminders of smoking. You are going to give yourself a reward for each unit of time you are successful–one day if this is a difficult task to do, one week if you can do it. You decide. Then pick a reward ypou will give yourself if you don’t smoke for that amount of time–it just cannot be a cigarette! What will you do if you fail? Choose a “punishment” (such as an extra run around the campus) and plan to start again. This is your behavioral plan.
Homework: Write up a behavioral plan for a particular behavior that you want to change in yourself. Specify all the parts that I described above (starting date, rewards, punishments, etc.). This is your opportunity to finally achieve that goal that you’ve always wanted to do!
It is just a short writing, write about anything you want but you have to follow the instruction. Psychological Frameworks Research Essay
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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