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## Probability of the Occurrence of a Single Event Worksheet

Order ID53563633773 TypeEssay Writer LevelMasters StyleAPA Sources/References4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order5-10 Pages

Description/Paper InstructionsProbability of the Occurrence of a Single Event Worksheet

The law of probability states that when a procedure can result in two equally likely outcomes, the probability of either outcome occurring is1/2 or 50%.According to the law of probability, when there are four equally likely outcomes from a procedure, the probability that one of the outcomes will occur is1/4 or 25%. You can see how this is calculated. For example, you know that in tossing two nickels, the probability of heads occurring on one nickel is1/2. The possibility of heads occurring on the other nickel is also1/2. The probability of heads occurring on both nickels in one toss is1/2×1/2=1/4.

You can use the probability to predict the probability of given genetic traits appearing in the offspring of particular parents. Punnett squares can also be used to obtain these results.When gametes are formed, the pair of alleles that determine a particular trait separate and one allele goes to each gamete. When fertilization occurs, a male and female gamete fuse. The resulting zygote, which develops into the new individual, now contains two alleles for the trait. Which two of the parents’ alleles appear in the zygote is a result of chance.In this assignment, you will:

Predict the probability of the occurrence of a single event.

Predict the probability of two independent events occurring at the same time.

Apply Mendel’s law to predict the occurrence of certain traits in the offspring of parents exhibiting particular traits.

Apply the meaning of the term Standard Deviation to sampling techniques.

Instructions Your task is to complete each of the three parts of the activity on probability. Once completed you will answer an analysis question that relates the events of the activity to the inheritance patterns observed in Mendelian genetics. Materials For this activity, you will need the following:

Two nickels

Masking tape

Part 1

Part I: Probability of the Occurrence of a Single Event

1. Toss a nickel20 times. Count how many times it lands heads up and how many times it lands tails up. Write the totals under the observed column for 20 tosses in Table 1 below.2. Using the law of probability, decide how many times out of 20 tosses you would expect heads to appear and how many times you would expect tails to appear. Write your answer in the expected column for 20 tosses in Table 1 below.3. Calculate deviation by subtracting the expected number from the observed number. Record these in the deviation column for 20 tosses in Table 1 below. Make all numbers positive.4. Repeat Step 1, but tossing the nickel30 times. Count how many times heads and tails appear. Record the observed numbers in the observed column for 30 tosses in Table 1. 5. Calculate the expected number of heads and tails and record them in the proper column in Table 1. Then calculate the deviates, and enter these in the proper column.6. Repeat Step 1, tossing the nickel50 times. Keep track of the appearance of heads and tails. Record the observed numbers, expected numbers and deviations in the columns for 50 tosses in Table 1.7. Calculate the standard deviation for each of the four sections above; 20, 30, 50 and total tosses. To calculate the standard deviation, first, subtract the expected from the observed, as done in Table 1 and then square this value. Divide this value by the number of events. Take the square root of this result. This is your standard deviation. Enter your results in Table 2.Table 1: Probability of the Occurrence of a Single Event:HEADSTAILS20 TossesObservedExpectedDeviation30 TossesObservedExpectedDeviation50 TossesObservedExpectedDeviationTable 2: Standard Deviation of the Occurrence of a Single Event:Deviation from Table 1 SquaredSquared Deviation divided by Number of EventsSquare Root of Previous Column (Standard Deviation)20 Tosses30 Tosses50 TossesPart 2 :

Probability of Independent Events Occurring Simultaneously

1. Toss two nickels 40 times simultaneously. Keep track of how many times heads-heads, heads-tails, tails-heads, and tails-tails occur. Count tails-heads and heads-tails together. Record the numbers for each combination in the observed column in Table 3 below. 2. Calculate the percent of the total that each combination (heads-heads, heads-tails/tails-heads, or tails-tails) occurred and record it in the proper column. To find the percent, divide each observed number by 40 and multiply by 100. 3. Using the law of probability, predict the expected outcomes of tossing two nickels. Record the expected numbers in the proper column in Table 3. Table 3: Probability of the Occurrence of Two Events COMBINATIONS OBSERVED EXPECTED Heads-Heads Heads-Tails Tails-Heads Tails-TailsTotal4040Part 3 : probability and mendelian genetics

- Place a small piece of masking tape on each side of two nickels. On one nickel write
Ron each side. On the other nickel writeron each side.- Toss the nickels several times. What combination of alleles always appear? Would the offspring with these genes be round or wrinkled?
- Replace the old tape with new tape. On each nickel, write
Ron one side andron the other side.- Toss the coins simultaneously until all possible combinations of alleles have appeared. What combinations of genes appear? For each of the combinations, would the offspring be round or wrinkled?
Important

Standard deviation tells how tightly a set of values is clustered around the average or expected outcomes of those same values. It’s a measure of dispersal, or variation, in a group of numbers. If a set of numbers is close to the average of those values or what is expected, then we may expect to see a low standard deviation. In contrast, if the set of numbers is spread across a greater range, it may present a high standard deviation. Higher standard deviation is often interpreted as higher volatility. In comparison, lower standard deviation would likely be an indicator of stability.

Analysis Questions

What trend could be observed between the observed and the expected outcomes.

In Part I, how did the standard deviation change as you increased the number of times you tossed the coin? How might you explain this observation?

In Part III, what combinations of alleles have appeared? For each combination, would the offspring be round or wrinkled?

Use the results of this activity on the law of probability to explain the law of independent assortment.

Probability of the Occurrence of a Single Event Worksheet

RUBRIC

QUALITY OF RESPONSENO RESPONSEPOOR / UNSATISFACTORYSATISFACTORYGOODEXCELLENTC ontent (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking.30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking.40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete.50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing.Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points).Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper.5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6^{th}Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper.10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6^{th}Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources.15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources.20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment.Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage.20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free.Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6^{th}edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6^{th}edition requirements whatsoever.5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6^{th}edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment.10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6^{th}edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.## GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER

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