PP 504 Research and Writing in Public Administration
Order ID 53003233773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
PP 504 Research and Writing in Public Administration
Running head: POLICY BRIEF SHORT ESSAY 1
POLICY BRIEF SHORT ESSAY 6
Policy Brief Short Essay
PP 504: Research and Writing in Public Administration
December 16, 2014
Policy Brief Short Essay
From the first and the second journal articles have their differences and similarities in the way the problem was addressed. Both articles compare with each other because they are dealing ad addressing problems which are related to each other. In the first article the motive is to have the schools adopt a healthy eating program through the incorporation of healthy foods into their diets while the second article is dealing with the problem of stigma which comes from the issues pertaining with the food which is being taken by the children and the environment in which they are living in. Basically, the stigma is resulting for the activities which the deal with the demographics characteristics which were related to the National School Lunch Program. Thus both articles show that the increased cases of obesity in children are due to unhealthy diets in the schools.
The article are different since the first article shows that the NSLP can be incorporated in to the diets of the students while second article shows that there are hindrances to the implementation of the program such as increased stigma. Thus, some students who are willing to follow the program in their schools feel stigmatized by the actions of other students who might not participate in the diet but buy their own food. One of the articles has provided the sources of stigma and the finding found form the researches carried out.
One of problem which requires social participation is the child obesity. Over the years the number of children with obesity has been on the rise and this and specifically the children obesity. This has seen the generation of efforts from various organizations to curb the problem. This is to ensure that the next generation of the children will be healthy. The first lady of the US has been actively involved in this initiative through the creation of the lets move initiative in 2012 (Business Studies Quarterly, 2012).
The main cause of obesity is the consumption of the unhealthy food. These are foods which are processed thorough means such as canning, freezing and milling. Additionally, the processed foods are high in calories. Therefore for the children to be health there is need for the schools to take the initiative and implement the National School Lunch Program (NSLP).The program provides students with diets which are rich in calcium, iron, protein and vitamins. The fat intake in the meals of the students is limited to a maximum of 30%.The schools which mainly participate in the program are the middle schools where most of the lunches which are offered are free (Business Studies Quarterly, 2012).
The program has faced challenges in its implantation due to various issues related to stigmatization. Thus the efforts of the schools’ directors’ of nutrition have been hindered and drugged behind. However, in some schools the policy has been successful as it has been the case in Claremont Unified School District whereby the Mr. Cota joined the school with the aim of getting rid of the processed food. The perceived stigma associated with the implementation of the program is has been the main hindrance causing the program not to be implemented. The stigma is brought about by issues to deal with the prices of the lunch and the activities of the friends. This means that the children were influenced to do what their peers are doing. In some cases the children decide to have their meals at home and forego the meals offered in schools. Other factors which affected the participation in the NSLP are the payment status, parental characteristics and the students’ demographic (Lisa & Donka, 2009).
In terms of the payment status the students from the low income families where likely to participate in the program unlike those from the rich backgrounds. This is because most of the meals were provided free by the schools. Due to this factor some of the students would fell stigmatized as poor if they engage in the program. Taking a look at the parental characteristics the children form the widowed, divorced or separated families’ recorded higher chances of wanting to participate in the program. Additionally, the children of the learned parents were less likely to participate in the program while those of the less educated parents were likely to engage in the program. The students’ demographics deal with gender, ethnicity, the family size and the status of the mother. These factors affect the program because the children from the well set up families were less likely to indulge in the program. This shows that the program will stigmatize some children (Lisa & Donka, 2009).
To eliminate the problem there is need to eliminate the cafes found in schools which sell high calorie foods and drinks. Since there are free meals in the schools were the program is implanted there is need to eliminate them so that everyone has the choice of purchasing food. This will deal with the problem of stigmatization thereby reducing it (Business Studies Quarterly, 2012).This therefore, means that the prices of the meals should be reduced so that they are affordable. This way everyone will have to consume the food offered in school which is healthy (Lisa & Donka, 2009).
For the program to be effective there is need for the nutrition directors in the schools to work in line with the program in ensuring that quality food is provided to the students. The parents should also not qualify for free or reduced lunch and this way they will have no alternative than to eat the healthy food. The directors in the schools should also partner with the suppliers of agricultural food to ensure it is supplied to the school. The cooks on the other hand should adhere to the rules and ensure the stipulated rules in the program such as the use of minimal oil are followed. This way the rates of obesity among the children will be reduced.
Lisa, M.P., & Donka, M.M., (2009). Participation in the National School Lunch Program: Importance of School-Level and Neighborhood Contextual Factors. Database
Business Studies Quarterly (2012). Ethical Leadership in School Lunch Program Meal. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly.
PP 504 Research and Writing in Public Administration
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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