Obesity Treatment in Women Assignment
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Obesity Treatment in Women Assignment
PART I Directions: Now that you have started to examine the format for in-text citation, it is imperative to see
how in-text citation is actually used in academic writing. A portion of an academic paper is provided below as a
sample. (Note that this is not the whole essay.) Skim the content of the essay, focusing primarily on the
frequency and content of the in-text citations. Highlight and analyze each citation.
The Relative Effects of the Health at Every Size Paradigm for Obesity Treatment in Women
Despite an increase in dieting among the American public, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise (Bacon et al. 854; Gaesser 91). Traditional obesity treatment programs have assumed that the only method for reducing
disease risk in the obese is though weight loss. More importantly, traditional programs assume that everyone is
capable of weight loss and successful weight maintenance (Miller, “Health” 37; Miller, “Weight Loss” 89). These
programs have promoted the weight-loss-at-any-cost mindset that has permeated the medical model of obesity
treatment (Miller, “Weight Loss” 91). Despite efforts to promote weight loss among obese subjects, Traditional
Weight Loss (TWL) programs have been found largely ineffective at promoting long-term weight loss, with an
overall failure rate often cited as 90-95% (Gaesser 92) or even as high as 98% (Miller, “Health” 38). Even when
programs are successful in promoting short-term weight loss, the majority of weight is regained within four to
five years (Gaesser 92; Miller, “Fitness” 207). Despite the lack of supporting evidence, traditional treatment
programs continue to focus on weight loss as the only method of improving the health of obese individuals.
However, a new paradigm has been proposed to counter the traditional model: the Size Acceptance, or Health
at Every Size, paradigm (“Health”).
Health at Every Size (HAES) is based upon recent research demonstrating that physical activity can improve
health independently of weight loss and was developed out of frustration with the general failure of TWL
programs. This research has lead to the conclusion that an individual’s level of fitness is a better indicator of
health risk than level of fatness (Barlow 41; Miller, “Fitness” 208; Stevens 832). If exercise training has been
shown to have beneficial effects on health measures such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, blood
pressure, and insulin resistance independently of weight loss (Brown 1549; Friedman et al. 20; Tremblay et al.
1326), and even in the presence of weight gain (Friedman et al. 21), then why should health professionals
continue to emphasize weight loss as the only measure of success in obesity treatment?
Proponents of the HAES paradigm suggest instead that focus should be transferred away from weight loss and
toward healthy lifestyle behavior change, including physical activity and a healthful, balanced diet. HAES posits
that dieting and the resultant obsession with weight is unhealthy and seeks instead to promote acceptance of
all bodies, regardless of size or shape, acknowledging and respecting the natural diversity of human bodies in
direct opposition to Western society’s obsession with thinness (McFarlane, Polivy, and McCabe 262; Miller,
“Weight Loss” 93). In contrast to the traditional model, which focuses on weight as the sole measure of health,
HAES recognizes many factors that contribute to health and total well-being: physical, social, spiritual,
occupational, emotional, and intellectual (King 272; Miller, “Health” 44; Robison, Putnam, and McKibbon 185).
Whereas the traditional model of obesity focuses only on weight, HAES focuses on the entire person.
The majority of HAES studies measure psychological aspects of health including self-esteem, depression, body
image, body dissatisfaction, anxiety, and restraint in eating, as well as binge eating (Mellin and Minihane 1133).
Many studies have incorporated cognitive behavioral methods to improve these aspects of psychological
health; thus, definitions of success would include improvements within these psychological measures.
Improvement was quantified by pre- and post-treatment changes on validated psychological measures such as
the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg 250), the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al. 50), the Eating
Inventory (Stunkard and Messick 100), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger et al. 50), among
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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