Non-Probability Sampling Case Essay Assignment
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Non-Probability Sampling Case Essay Assignment
Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique that researchers can use to effectively collect data. The data is collected from individuals who are in a certain population. This method is however different from random sampling in the view that it does not give all the individuals in that population an equal chance of being selected for the research.
This method is always very effective in situations where researchers are bounded by either time, finances or even a workforce to accomplish the data collection(Rubin 2016). These limitations make it impossible to perform a random sample throughout the entire population. This therefore makes it necessary to employ an alternative form of sampling, and this is where non-probability sampling comes in.
Questionnaires are an effective method of data collection. They have several advantages, which makes them more efficient and effective to use. Questionnaires are affordable, as they are cheap to produce and distribute. Questionnaires also offer speedy results, especially with closed ended questionnaires. Questionnaires are also easy to use, and one does not require to be an expert to use them. Also offer anonymity to users, and users can fill them at their own time and discretion and help in respondents being more genuine with their answers.
Apart from being advantageous, questionnaires also have various disadvantages, which may make them inappropriate to use. One great disadvantage of questionnaires is the possibility of having low response rates. These response rates vary greatly, from 10% to 90% response rates. This wastes time and resources in the end and thus one should not overly rely in these for research data. It is also very difficult to probe responses in a questionnaire, and this loses the flavor of the response, especially in closed ended questionnaires. Also, questionnaires may not be filled by the intended people, as some respondents end up delegating other people to fill them up on their behalf, thus one does not receive correct responses (Andreau 2015).
Questionnaires also have various ethical issues. They include issues in their design, content and even privacy. Questionnaires should often have questions that prompt respondents to give certain specific answers instead of letting them decide. This can be solved by having open questions where the respondent is free to answer to their will. Another issue comes in anonymity of responses, where some organizations often disclose respondents’ details as well as the data collected to other organizations. This can be solved by failing to collect personal details of respondents, and this way their data will not be let out.
Measurement reliability refers to the extent at which data is consistent. There are three types of reliability which are; over time, across items and across different researchers. On the other hand, measurement validity is the extent to which certain measurements represent the variables that they are intended to represent(Doucet 2015).
Andreau, C. (2015). Questionnairs as a method of sampling. International Journal of Mathematics, 61-74.
Doucet, A. (2015). Measurement Validity Vs Reliability. Journal of Mathematics, 34-37.
Rubin, D. (2016). Non-probable Sampling. Journal of Statistics, 20-34.
Non-Probability Sampling Case Essay Assignment
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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