Immanuel Kant Lecture on Friendship Paper
Order ID 53003233773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Immanuel Kant Lecture on Friendship Paper
- What are the two conflicting motives to action? Why are they in conflict? How are they reconciled in friendship? (pp. 210-11)
- Explain each of the three types of friendship recognized by Kant. (pp. 212-15)
- How are Kant’s three types of friendship like and unlike the three types discussed by Aristotle?
- What is the adaptation of two people to one another that constitutes the bond of friendship? What are the elements which make up the character of a perfect friend? (p. 216) Is Kant right about these elements? Does it seem that he’s left out anything important?
- What are the remarks that Kant thinks a friendship of disposition calls for? (pp. 216-17) Is he correct on all these points in your view? Why?
Notes on the Kant Reading
If you meet Kant’s writing in another class – say, an ethics class, where one sometimes reads his Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals – you may look back on this reading on friendship and wonder why his published writing is so hard to read. By comparison, this little lecture is a model of clarity.
Kant begins by characterizing friendship as a means of reconciling two conflicting motives: self-love and love of humanity. The two are in conflict, because, if we act out of self-love, our action has no moral merit, but, if we act out of love of humanity, we might sacrifice our own happiness. These motives are reconciled in friendship, because each of us loves the other as himself, so our love has moral merit; and because the other loves us, our happiness is brought about as well.
Kant discusses three types of friendship:
- the friendship of need
the original form of friendship among people
does not exist at the stage of luxury
presupposed in every friendship as a source of confidence that the friend is competent to care for our affairs
compare/contrast this with Aristotle’s friendship of utility
- the friendship of taste
consists in the pleasure we derive from each other’s company (not from each other’s happiness)
most likely formed by people of different occupations, where their differences can entertain or satisfy one another
compare/contrast with Aristotle’s friendship of pleasure
- the friendship of disposition or sentiment
friendship in “the absolute sense”
a relationship where we can completely disclose all of our dispositions and judgements; a relationship where we don’t need to hide anything
can exist only between two or three friends
no question of any service or demand
compare/contrast with Aristotle’s complete friendship
Kant thinks that the bond of friendship is built on differences in the way two people think rather than in the two thinking alike. However, their intellectual and moral principles must be the same. He thinks the following characteristics are elements of the perfect friend:
lack of falsehood
lack of spite
a sweet, cheerful and happy temper
Even when one has a friendship of disposition or sentiment, Kant counsels us to be careful in case the friend turns into an enemy. First, we mustn’t hate the old friend or speak ill of them. This is a matter of prudence: we might give people hearing us a reason to avoid our friendship. Second, while we’re friends, we should be careful not to trust the friend completely or to tell all of our secrets, in case they fail to keep our secrets or one day seek to injure us.
Immanuel Kant Lecture on Friendship Paper
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. 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The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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