Evaluation of Teaching Strategies Paper
Order ID 53003233773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Evaluation of Teaching Strategies Paper
Correction and Feedback
Receiving immediate feedback about performance is particularly important in mathematics. If students are performing an operation incorrectly, they should be told which parts correct and which parts are incorrect. Showing students patterns in their errors is an important source of feedback. Students also need to learn to check their own work and monitor their errors.
Working in pairs can help in this process of checking and monitoring because students benefit from a peer’s help when they may not from the teacher. Remember, feedback includes pointing out improvements as well as needed changes. Students in Ms. Wong’s math class were given a worksheet to practice their new skill of using dollar signs and decimal points in their subtraction problems.
Ms. Wong told the students to do only the first problem. After they completed the problem, they were to check it and make any necessary changes. If they thought that their answer to the problem was correct, they were to write a small c next to their answer; if not, they were to write a small i for incorrect next to the answer. They were also to indicate with a check mark where they thought they had made a mistake. Ms. Wong moved quickly from student to student, checking their work.
Students who had the first problem correct were given task-specific praise and directions for the rest of the problems: “Good for you. You got the first problem correct, and you had the confidence, after checking it, to call it correct. I see you remembered to use the dollar sign and decimal points where they were needed. After you finish the first row, including checking your problems, meet with another student to see how your answers compare.
Do you know what to do if there is a discrepancy in your answers? That’s right. You’ll need to check each other’s problem to locate the error.” For the students who had solved the problem incorrectly, Ms. Wong stopped by each student’s desk and said, “Tell aloud how you did this. Start from the beginning, and as you think of what you’re doing, say it aloud so I can follow.”
Ms. Wong finds that students often notice their own errors, or she will identify some faulty thinking by the students that keeps them from correctly solving the problem. Once the error has been found and corrected, Ms. Wong asks the student to do the next problem, again saying what is being done aloud. If correct, Ms. Wong gives task-specific praise and directions for the rest of the problems.
Alternative Approaches to Instruction If a student is not succeeding with one instructional approach or program, the teacher should not hesitate to make a change. Most students learn best when they are provided prerequisite skills to sup-port the math processes and opportunities to practice with feedback. Consider changing resources if students are having difficulty, including adjusting textbooks, workbooks, math stations, and manipulatives.
Applied Mathematics Concrete and representational materials and real-life applications of math problems make math relevant and increase the likelihood that students will transfer skills to applied settings such as home and work. Students can continue to make progress in mathematics throughout their school years when they have the underlying foundational scaffold from which to build their skills and problem solving.
The emphasis needs to be on problem solving rather than on rote drill and practice activities. The term situated cognition refers to the principle that students will learn complex ideas and concepts in the contexts in which they occur in day-to-day life (real-world application). Students need many opportunities to practice what they learn in the ways in which they will eventually use what they learn. This is a critical way to promote the generalization of mathematical skills.
For example, when teaching measurement, a teacher can give students real-world application opportunities to use the mathematics they are learning, such as measuring rooms for carpet, determining the mileage to specific locations, and so on. When Ms. Wong’s students successfully used dollar signs and decimals in subtraction, she gave each of them a mock checkbook, which included checks and a ledger for keeping the balance.
In each of their checkbooks, she wrote the amount of $100.00. During math class for the rest of the month, she gave students “money” for their checkbook when their assignments were completed, and their behavior was appropriate.
She asked them to write her checks when they wanted supplies (pencils, erasers, chalk) or privileges (going to the bathroom, free time, meeting briefly with a friend). Students were asked to maintain the balances in their checkbooks. Students were penalized $5.00 for each mistake the “bank” located in the checkbook ledgers at the end of the week, much like a charge a real bank would make for an overdrawn account.
Generalization, or transfer of learning, needs to be taught. As most experienced teachers know, students often can perform skills in the special education room but cannot perform them in a regular classroom. To facilitate the transfer of learning between settings, teachers must pro-vide opportunities to practice skills by using a wide range of materials, such as textbooks, workbooks, manipulatives (e.g., blocks, rods, tokens, real money), and word problems.
For example, the teacher could have students measure different objects with things (unsharpened pencils, sheets of construction paper, or newspaper pages) rather than rulers or yardsticks. Teachers also need to systematically reduce the amount of help they provide students in solving problems. When students are first learning a math concept or operation, teachers provide a lot of assistance in performing it correctly.
As students become more skillful, they need less assistance. Teachers must remember that generalization or transfer of learning must be planned for rather than “teach and hope” that it will occur. When Ms. Wong’s students correctly applied subtraction with dollars and decimals in their checkbooks, she asked them to perform similar problems for homework. Ms. Wong realized that before she could be satisfied that the students had mastered the skill, they needed to perform it outside her classroom and without her assistance.
Participation in Goal Selection Allowing students to participate in setting their own goals for mathematics is likely to increase their commitment to achieving goals. Students who selected their own mathematics goals improved their performance on math tasks over time more than did those students whose mathematics goals were assigned to them by a teacher (L. S. Fuchs, Bahr, & Rieth, 1989). Even very young children can participate in selecting their overall mathematics goals and can keep progress charts on how well they are performing.
Instructional Approaches Students in the United States have scored well below others (Taipei, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan) in mathematics proficiency in grades 4 and 8 on the international assessment of mathematics, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (Provasnik et al., 2016). We need to examine how we teach. It may be advantageous for math teachers to con-sider focusing instruction on the development of fewer mathematical topics that are the more important ones so that students become truly proficient.
This approach is used in many other countries that have demonstrated successful outcomes in mathematics (Ginsburg, Cooke, Leinwand, Noell, & Pollock, 2005). The National Research Council (NRC) (National Research Council, 2001) indicates that “mathematical proficiency” is the essential goal of instruction. What is mathematical proficiency?
It is what any student needs to acquire mathematical understanding. The NRC describes five inter-woven strands that compose proficiency. Consider how you are integrating these strands into your instruction. Also, consider how you might determine whether the students you teach are making progress along each of these strands.
- Conceptual understanding refers to understanding mathematic concepts and operations.
- Procedural fluency is the ability to accurately and efficiently conduct operations and mathematics practices.
- Strategic competence is the ability to formulate and con-duct mathematical problems.
- Adaptive reasoning refers to thinking about, explaining, and justifying mathematical work.
- Productive disposition is appreciating the useful and positive influences of understanding mathematics and how one’s disposition toward mathematics influences success.
See Apply the Concept 11.2 for suggested instructional practices.
It is particularly important for teachers to design mathematics programs that enhance learning for all students, especially those with diverse cultural or linguistic back-grounds. See the next section for suggestions on how to do this. Evaluation of Teaching Strategies Paper
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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