|Perfect Number of Pages to Order||5-10 Pages|
Essay on Electoral Violence
QUESTION 1: Read those essays and write 1000 words about electoral violence.
Horowitz and Lijphart agree that choosing the correct voting institutions is crucial for reducing violence in ethnically split communities. They both believe plurality rules based on first-past-the-post (FPTP) are problematic. They disagree, however, on which alternative electoral system would be the most effective in reducing the danger of inter-ethnic conflict.
(a) Read the following two articles summarizing the Horowitz-Lijphart discussion on whether election systems would best limit conflict in South Africa in the aftermath of apartheid:
i. According to Horowitz (1991), there are some differences between FPTP plurality, proportional representation (PR), and alternative voting (AV). He makes a compelling case for AV.
ii. Horowitz’ proposals are summarized and critiqued in the Lijphart (1991) reading. He fosters public relations.
(b) The city of Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh, India, is described in the Brass (2013) chapter.
i. In 1991, 45% of the city’s population identified as Hindu, 37% as Muslim, and 17% as Scheduled Caste (mostlysocially disadvantaged Hindus).
ii. There have been three distinct types of political competition: Hindu-Muslim polarization (Hindus + Scheduled Castes vs. Muslims), Muslim-Scheduled Caste combination (Muslims + Scheduled Castes against. Hindus), and three-way vote division (Hindus vs. Muslims vs. Scheduled Castes).
(c) Assume Aligarh has 10 seats available for election via FPTP (winner takes all), PR (closed list), or AV (with three preferences).
Explain the following using the Horowitz-Lijphart dispute and evidence from the Brass article:
i. How India’s FPTP system may have resulted in these three types of political rivalry.
ii. How will introducing PR or AV (choose one) affect the risk of inter-group violence?