CRJS435 American InterContinental Prison Rape Elimination Essay
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
CRJS435 American InterContinental Prison Rape Elimination Essay
Historically, the court system has taken a hands-off approach to prison management. Prior to the 1960’s, judicial review of correctional institutions was limited to the most severe of considerations. However, in the late 1960’s, along with the increase of judicial review upon publicly visible government matters, also came judicial oversight into The Big House.
PREA Background and Context:
Though The Big House prison model held significantly more humanitarian reforms than did previous United States prison models, life inside of it was still wanton with imminent danger. Offenders lived in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Many performed hard and meaningless manual labor from sun rise to sun set. Disciplinary and institutional rules were often arbitrary and it was not unusual for inmates to be beaten, killed, or raped by other inmates or even staff. In fact, even today, the California Coalition Against Sexual Assault (2018) estimates that 20% of all incarcerated males, and 25% of all females, have been sexually assaulted while incarcerated.
Thus, judicial review has brought to light a series of administrative concerns for America’s prison systems as they moved into the Correctional Institutions model of confinement. In recent years, one of the greatest of those concerns, prison rape culture, was addressed in Farmer v. Brennan, 511 U.S. 825 (1994). Dee Farmer was a preoperative, transgendered female. However, as this offender still had male genitals, Farmer was housed in a low security male facility. As a result of excessive disciplinary infractions, Farmer’s custody level was increased. As such, Farmer was subsequently transferred from a lower security male institution into a higher security male penitentiary. Upon transfer, Offender Farmer claimed to have been sexually assaulted by another offender. Farmer then sued the government, arguing that correctional administrators showed deliberate indifference toward the offender’s personal safety by not considering the risk of sexual assault that being in a maximum security environment would create. Though ultimately Farmer lost the civil suit, that litigation was the impetus for the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003.
According to the National PREA Resource Center (2018), “the purpose of the act was to provide for the analysis of the incidence and effects of prison rape in Federal, State, and local institutions and to provide information, resources, recommendations and funding to protect individuals from prison rape.” As noted by the PREA Resource Center’s partner agency, Just Detention International (JDI), the ultimate goal of prison centered human rights advocates is to change prison rape culture. According to JDI, “many people believe that prisoner rape is just part of life behind bars – an inevitable punishment for breaking the law.” By working to change social views, however, JDI hopes “to counter these harmful attitudes, so that rape in detention is recognized for what it is: a human rights crisis that we can, and must, end” (JDI, 2018).
Many correctional administrators, however, disagree with some the requirements of the PREA standards. In these instances, administrators are not disagreeing with the need to ensure offender safety. After all, maintaining the custody and control of the offender population is the primary function of any correctional facility. Nonetheless, they argue that the building modifications needed to bring their facilities into compliance, most of which were built long before PREA was enacted, would cost tax payers millions of dollars while providing very little, if any, actual improvements to security.
There is also significant concern with meeting the overall staffing requirements, as well as the specific staffing requirements for cross-gender viewing and searching mandates. This is especially true given the national shortage of correctional officers. Lastly, there is the opposition from correctional officials themselves, especially female staff, who are assigned to opposite gender housing units. In such instances, when female staff enter the dayroom area of an opposite gender housing assignment, they must announce both their presence and their gender. Generally, this is done by shouting a version of: “Female on the floor!” Many female officers believe not only do such statements give offenders advanced warning to hide their contraband, but also that having to be identified by their gender sexually objectifies them and works to lessen offender respect of their authority as “real” correctional officers; namely, as compared to the same respect their male counterparts, who do not have to sexually identify themselves, are entitled to upon entering the same housing assignment.
Referencing at least three credible sources and using proper APA format and guidelines, submit a 5-6 page paper addresses the following:
Summarize the facts of Farmer v. Brennan, 511 U.S. 825 (1994).
Define prison rape culture.
Define “deliberate indifference” as applied in Farmer.
Discuss the purpose of the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) (2003).
As discussed in the Survivors Behind Bars (2010) publication, discuss the dynamics of prisoner rape. How does this compare to the “free-world” dynamics of domestic violence and rape?
Discuss the compounding effect of a correctional environment on offenders suffering from rape trauma syndrome.
Discuss the pros and cons of having a rape counseling program in a correctional facility.
Discuss the application of PREA requirements from a correctional prospective, both as an administrator and as a correctional officer.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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