Components of honey with antimicrobial activity
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Components of honey with antimicrobial activity
1- Defining the precise cause of the antimicrobial activity seen in honey is complicated due to the multifactorial nature of honey. Honeys have high osmolality due to the high concentration of sugars,29 and it has been shown that 61% of honeys tested have antibacterial activity, which can be attributed solely to their high osmotic potential.30 In addition to this feature, the majority of non-manuka honeys’ antimicrobial activity is derived from the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) upon dilution and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species.84 Although the activity generated by (H2 O2) is potent, that activity can be curtailed by catalase.85 In a wound environment, where catalase is commonly released from human tissue, this curtailment leads to reduced antimicrobial activity of the honeys, therefore raising doubts over their Antibacterial manuka honey
use in a clinical setting. Other components such as immune modulatory molecules, eg, bee defensin 1,85 phenolics,86,87 and flavonoid compounds,88 also contribute to activity in some honeys.
To date, both methylglyoxal (MGO) and leptosperin have been identi ed as major contributors to its enhanced antimicrobial activity.90,91 An overview of the active components of a range of honeys, including manuka honey, coupled with their mechanism of action
There are phenolic compounds within manuka honey that remain unidenti ed.89 Some of these compounds, such as leptosperin, could have activity similar to MGO.91 A study testing 20 Canadian honeys showed that those containing the highest quantity of phenolic compounds, in this case wildflower and buckwheat honeys, also had the most antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.97
2- MGO is found only in manuka honey, and concentrations increase as honey ripens. During maturation, MGO is converted from dihydroxyacetone via non-enzymatic Maillard-like reactions. The antimicrobial activity of MGO is derived from its ability to inactivate proteins by cross-linking them.
The mechanism of action of methylglyoxal
3- manuka honey has been shown to have a very high level of non-H2O2 antimicrobial activity when compared to other honeys. This high level of activity has been measured and researched, and the improved levels of anti- bacterial ef cacy have been attributed to several compounds isolated from manuka honey.85,87,99,100
Antibacterial properties of manuka honey
4-While MGO is deemed to produce the majority of manuka honey’s antibacterial activity, it is interesting to note that its neutralization has negligible effects on manuka honey’s ability to inhibit P. aeruginosa. This is in stark contrast to S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis, where the neutralization of MGO results in reduced activity.90,104 This result con rms the presence of other compounds with inhibitory ef cacy, at least against P. aeruginosa
5-It is important to note that although manuka honey is the only honey currently recognized as having bioactive concentrations of MGO, studies have shown that it may be possible to augment non-manuka honeys by adding MGO or its precursor dihydroxyacetone. One study showed that the addition of dihydroxyacetone to clover honey led to MGO detection.95 In addition, supplementation of honeys with MGO can increase bactericidal activity to a level com- parable with manuka honey.105
6-bacterial resistance to manuka honey has not been observed in a clinical setting; however, the emergence of cells with decreased suscepti- bility to honey has been reported in vitro.106
Manuka honey has demonstrated eff icacy against a range of organisms assuming the biofilm phenotype in vitro,56,60,107–109 has been shown to inhibit bacterial species where individual strains have vastly different bio lm-forming abilities,59
7- While the antibacterial qualities of manuka honey alone are extremely promising, combination therapy is now being thoroughly scrutinized as a way of reinvigorating antibiotics that are no longer effective.110–112 Researchers have shown that in vitro combination therapy using sub-inhibitory concentrations of manuka honey reduces the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of antibiotics, effectively “reversing” AMR.39,80 To date, improved antibacterial efficacy for colistin, imipenem, mupirocin, rifampicin, and tetracycline has been demonstrated when combined with manuka honey.39,52
8-These combinations open up a new avenue for future antimicrobial development. Furthermore, with inhibitory activity demonstrated against bio lms,9 the potential for manuka honey to be utilized clinically, inhibiting both acute and chronic infections, is highly promising.
Mechanisms of antibacterial action of manuka honey
9- It was later confirmed that manuka honey causes disruption to the regular cell division process of S. aureus114 Under optimal conditions, bacterial cells duplicate and segregate
10- Manuka honey has been shown to inhibit the activity (and not the expression) of murein hydrolase, causing a build-up of septated non-dividing cells 114.
11- In contrast to the mechanism observed in S. aureus, studies have proposed an entirely different mechanism against P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa cells can tolerate higher con- centrations of manuka honey when compared to S. aureus, with inhibitory concentrations causing the loss of cellular integrity, leading to extensive cell lysis and cell death.117
12- The different mechanistic actions observed against P.aeruginosa(comparedtoS.aureus) highlightsthepotential for multiple modes of action, and multiple inhibitory com- pounds in manuka honey. One noteworthy point is that the conserved nature of the cell division process among bacteria suggests manuka honey may affect the cell division process of P. aeruginosa.
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