Code of Ethics of the Society of Toxicology
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Code of Ethics of the Society of Toxicology
health, or to the environment, then that substance may never reach the marketplace. Alternatively, animal safety studies in combination with relevant information in humans can demonstrate that lower doses of some medicines may produce the same beneficial effects with a reduction in side effects. Products previously available only by prescription can then be released.
Recent examples include medicines used to treat inflammation and stomach ulcers. We all benefit from their increased availability and lower price as well as their pharmacologic properties. Animals also benefit from medicines originally developed for human use. In addition, research leads to useful safety and first aid label statements. These labels provide consumers with information to make wise choices about appropriate use. Toxicologists, using animal studies to validate results, provide a critical level of protection while enabling the use of products for an enhanced quality of life.
Avoiding Too Much of a Good Thing—All chemicals may cause harm, depending on the dose of the exposure. Toxicologists help determine the appropriate level of exposure, develop the understanding of how chemicals cause injury and, in addition, their studies provide treatment
alternatives in the event of poisoning. Information gained from research with animals is used by Poison Centers worldwide, where the majority of calls concern children under the age of five. How does a caregiver know what to do when a child drinks a household cleaner? The caregiver can call the Poison Center to learn the best action to take, based upon information from scientific studies conducted by toxicologists.
Safe Environment—Both animal and non-animal research is used to study the potential health problems associated with the world around us, including exposures to industrial processes, air pollution, soil and water contamination, hazardous waste and natural toxins. Toxicologists use these studies to determine how much of a substance is safe and how much might be hazardous. Use of lead in paints and gasoline resulted in high exposure to lead in homes and along highways. Studies with mice, for example, have demonstrated that even small amounts of lead can affect the nervous system and behavior. These effects were only evident in humans by subsequently conducting long- term studies that measured exposure in very large numbers of people. Then the importance of reducing lead exposure was clear.
Position Statement Regarding the Use of Animals in Toxicology the Society of Toxicology is dedicated to the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge that improves the health and safety of humans and animals and the protection of their environment.
To fulfill this objective, the Society is committed to:
the design and conduct of the best possible scientific research;
the responsible use of laboratory animals in toxicological research and testing as necessary and vital to ensure and enhance the quality of human and animal health and the environment;
the development and use of alternatives to the use of animals;
the use of research designs that employ less painful or stressful procedures and improve animal care; and
a reduction in the number of animals used for research and testing when this is scientifically appropriate and valid.
The Code of Ethics of the Society of Toxicology states that each member shall observe the spirit as well as the letter of the laws, regulations and ethical standards with regard to the welfare of humans and animals involved in any experimental procedures.
Code of Ethics of the Society of Toxicology
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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