ADHD and Its Clinical Translation Discussion Responses
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ADHD and Its Clinical Translation Discussion Responses
One paragraph reply for each discussion with 1 credible source
Since the rise of COVID, telehealth has played a major role in today’s care. In June of 2020, the State of California Office of Health Information Integrity updated its state laws for telehealth security. This was to ensure privacy and security was implemented. The main things that were added to this law was to ensure HIPAA and state security requirements were authorized for telehealth. Proper software licensing, vendor agreement, vendor’s responsibilities of patients protected health information, how is the PHI disclosed, patient security during video conference, ways to restrict access to only authorized users, and record retention laws for electronic recordings.
Because of these changes, companies have security programs that protect their patients health information, protect patients rights, and protect patients privacy. If companies are not up to date on their security, they will be fine and sanctioned for unauthorizing one’s health information. Computer programmers handle the security needed to keep patients information safe and promote privacy of one’s health care information. Although information is online, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, federal law requires there to be national standards to protect sensitive patient health information from being disclosed without the patient’s consent. The ethical dilemmas that have resulted from technology is knowing that someone’s information could possibly get out into the open for someone to gain access to due to not having proper security. This can be resolved by having IT developers that daily write new algorithms to ensure that data is not breached.
Statewide health information policy manual (SHIPM) documents version 6/2022 – california health and human services. California Health and Human Services – Updates on CHHS Data Initiatives. (2022, May 25). Retrieved June 6, 2022, from https://www.chhs.ca.gov/ohii/shipm/statewide-healt…
A state law that was implemented to help regulate patient safety during the Covid-19 pandemic was the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act and the Coronavirus Aid Relief and Economic Security (CARES) Act. These regulations prompted the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to allow the reimbursement of fees for telehealth to be equivalent to that of in-person visits, waive coverage restrictions, allow for services outside of rural areas and allow services via smartphones (Pessar, 2021). This was a major change in the way mental health and substance abuse disorder programs treated patients because in-person services were stopped due to the pandemic and high risk of close contact. Prior to the pandemic, telehealth was a service used for people outside rural communities and was not covered by Medicare or Medicaid. The regulations that came about because of the pandemic allowed for this service to become available for many more people so that they may continue getting the treatment and help they needed. People are now able to speak with mental health professionals via telephone or video call and can get prescribed medications, talk to psychiatrists and get the appointments they need much faster because they no longer have to wait for in-person visits. There was a huge jump in the number of people dealing with mental health problems and drug abuse from the sudden changes that occurred to their social and financial situations. This change in the way care was being provided and the availability of telehealth services allowed for more people to be seen and get the treatments they needed.
The technology associated with the new regulations for telehealth includes technology devices like cell phones and computers. One dilemma that has resulted from the use of telehealth is maintaining patient privacy. According to the AMA (n.d.), “all physicians who participate in telehealth/telemedicine must assure themselves that telemedicine services have appropriate protocols to prevent unauthorized access and to protect the security and integrity of patient information at the patient end of the electronic encounter, during transmission, and among all health care professionals and other personnel who participate.” It is not really an ethical dilemma, but still an important one because if the wrong person gets access to the telehealth appointment or information shared, it can lead to ethical issues and private patient information being shared with others who it does not pertain to. One way to resolve this is to ensure there are security steps in place to ensure the correct people are joining and creating a secure network that is reliable and has several lines of defense in the event that someone tries to hack into the system. Another dilemma is obtaining informed consents. When doing in-person visits, people are able to sign physical forms or electronic forms that are automatically uploaded into their electronic health record, but in telemedicine, these forms must be obtained differently and uploaded into their files. There is a risk in these forms getting lost or uploaded into the wrong files which becomes an ethical dilemma when services are being carried out without written or signed consent because it was lost or the wrong services are being provided based on the informed consents on file that belong to someone else. One way to resolve this is to always double check patient identifiers on all forms being signed and uploaded and double checking that you are uploading the correct information for the correct patient.
American Medical Association (AMA). (n.d). Ethical practice in Telemedicine. Retrieved from https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/ethics/ethical-practice-telemedicine (Links to an external site.)
Pessar, S. C., Boustead, A., Ge, Y., Smart, R., & Pacula, R. L. (2021). Assessment of state and federal health policies for opioid use disorder treatment during the covid-19 pandemic and beyond. Jama Health Forum, 2(11). https://doi.org/10.1001/jamahealthforum.2021.3833
Medication errors can lead to serious patient harm in any healthcare setting. Even though health care workers want the best for patients, medication error rates remain high causing an alarming number of disabilities and deaths. Preventable errors also increase healthcare costs and can increase insurance rates. Health care workers must work together to ensure patient safety and decrease medication errors.
In my literature review I continued to find that healthcare workers are scared to report errors. They are worried about the punishment they may receive if they report themselves. It has been found that punishment for medication errors causes less errors to be reported. A learning and supportive environment is healthier and safer for patients. (Rodziewicz et all, 2022)
Another factor that stood out to me was the cost of medication errors. I found an article that stated, “in the USA hospitals in 1995, the annual spending on medication errors for each hospital was around 2.9 million dollars” (Nasr et al, 2021).
Hopefully as we all work together in the future and the electronic health record does become the national standard, medication errors can be reduced. Our patients want safe care, and we want to give them safe care. Reducing medication errors could also reduce cost to those who pay for health care services.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental and developmental disorders in children that affects their ability to pay attention and control their behaviors. The two main forms of treatment include behavior therapy and medications. Many people disagree with giving children medications, but they have been found to help them concentrate and control their behaviors, sometimes in combination with other treatments. By helping children focus and perform better in school, they can reap the full benefits of their education and have a better quality of life.
The most important takeaways from the literature review resources I reviewed are that there are so many different styles of research and data presentation to consider. In regards to ADHD, I found a lot of resources that compared children with ADHD to those with normal behaviors and some that included children on medication versus no treatment. This helps support the idea of comparing children to see if medications actually make a difference for them. One thing to consider is that treating ADHD takes a team and a process to reach a place where the child is able to function at their best level. Some of these children in the studies may have been in an adjustment phase in their treatment and others may not have been compliant with treatments. The one topic I had more difficulty finding research on was the long-term effects of taking ADHD medications at such a young age. Many resources presented with inconclusive information or lacked the proper evidence and support to help defend the results found. This shows that more research needs to be done to show whether there are long lasting effects of taking medications, which may help put more parents at ease with this treatment as an option if they had better evidence showing that it was more beneficial than harmful. Overall, There was a lot of resources that presented general information about the benefits of treating ADHD with medications, but there is still room for more solid research and evidence to be presented on this topic because so many researchers are gearing towards excluding medications as a treatment option
ADHD and Its Clinical Translation Discussion Responses
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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