760 Gtons of Carbon Atoms in The Form Co2
Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
760 Gtons of Carbon Atoms in The Form Co2
There are 760 Gtons of carbon atoms in the form CO2 in the atmosphere. Every year, 60
Gtons of carbon are “fixed” into plants by the process photosynthesis.
1a. How many years would it take to remove all of the CO2 from the atmosphere if
photosynthesis were to continue to fix carbon dioxide at a rate of 60 Gtons yr-1?
1b. Plants also respire and, when they die, they decompose. This process also occurs at a rate
of 60 Gton yr-1. If photosynthesis were somehow to be shut off, how long would it take to
produce 760 Gtons of carbon in the form of CO2 in the atmosphere (i.e., now long would
it take to produce 760 Gtons, which would cause CO2 in the atmosphere to double)?
1c. In Homework 3 we determined that fossil fuel consumption and deforestation (mainly
“slash and burn” agricultural practices) produces 3.3 Gtons yr-1 of carbon. This represents
an additional source of CO2 to the atmosphere such that removal by photosynthesis is not
perfectly balanced by reemission of CO2 to the atmosphere by respiration and decay.
How long will it take to double the present amount of CO2 (i.e., add an additional 760
Gtons) if humans continue to produce this additional 3.3 Gtons yr-1?
II. There is an enormous amount of organic (“fixed”) carbon buried in sediments – about
10,000,000 Gtons (or 107 Gtons). Some of this is in the form of fossil fuels (mainly coal).
Plate tectonics slowly buries carbon in sediments at the bottom of the ocean at a rate of 0.05
2a. Assuming this rate of burial has remained constant, how long did it take to produce the
amount of organic carbon that is currently buried in sediments?
2b. It is believed that extractable fossil fuels represent about 0.2% of all of the organic carbon
buried in sediments, or about 20,000 Gtons. Humans are presently burning fossil fuels at
the rate of 7.6 Gton yr-1. At this rate, how long would it take to use up all of the
extractable fossil fuels buried in sediments?
2c. If all of these ‘fuels’ were to be burned and emitted to the atmosphere as CO2, how much
CO2 would there be in the atmosphere? (Don’t forget the current amount of carbon in the
atmosphere – 760 Gtons.)
2d. Convert the value in 2c above to ppm using the relationship 1 GtonC = 0.45 ppm CO2.
Recall that in the movie “Crude: The Incredible Journey of Oil”, we learned that if
atmospheric abundances of CO2 reach 1200-1400 parts per million the polar ice caps
will likely melt and deep water formation will cease, leading to an oceanic anoxic event.
Is the amount of CO2 you determined in Part 2c more or less than the amount necessary
to trigger an oceanic anoxic event?
III. Photosynthesis in the oceans takes up (“uptake”) 90 Gtons yr-1 of carbon from the
atmosphere and respiration and decay (“rerelease”) return 88 Gtons yr-1 of carbon back to the
3a. Assuming the imbalance between uptake and rerelease remains the same over long
periods of time, how long would it take to remove the excess 20,000 Gtons of organic
carbon in the deep ocean? Note – we call the process of transporting organic carbon from
the surface of the ocean to the deep ocean the biological pump.
3b. If the oceans become anoxic, release of carbon back to the atmosphere ceases (i.e., the 88
Gtons yr-1 of rerelease essentially drops to zero). If this were to occur, how long would it
take to remove the excess 20,000 Gton of CO2 from the atmosphere in return it to the
deep ocean (i.e. how long would it take to remove 20,000 Gtons of carbon from the
atmosphere)? We can consider this the shortest time possible to restore balance back to
the organic carbon cycle.
760 Gtons of Carbon Atoms in The Form Co2
NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME] and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!