Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
PAD4390 Module 11 Mitigation Planning Process Questions
Post your response to one of the following discussion questions for Module 11, HMP Chapter 10 and HMP 1st Edition Ch13 (a PDF posted in Module 11); and Module 12, HMP Chapter 12. Please note the # of the question for which you comment. Your initial response for each selected question must be at least 250 words. Please add a word count at the end of each response. Cite the weekly readings and other sources, if needed, to support your comment. You also have to comment on one initial response from other students.
Q1: Compare the five types of mitigation strategies listed in Table 12.1 on page 433 regarding three attributes – effectiveness, cost, and implementation barriers. Discuss why a mitigation manager or a land use planner has to consider tradeoffs between different mitigation strategies in building community resilience to disasters. (Hint: skim the recommended reading – 2016_Ge&Lindell – in Module 12 folder)
Q2: What are the four basic phases in a mitigation planning process? From your point of view, which phase(s) is(are) not being undertaken effectively in the local mitigation plan-making process? Why?
Q3: What is the relationship between a risk assessment report and a hazard mitigation plan? What are the six steps of a risk assessment process?
The risk assessment is the backbone of the hazard mitigation plan. The risk assessment provides the justification and rationalization for policies that are written in the plan. It aligns with the regulations of the Disaster Mitigation Act in that the hazard mitigation plans shall include a risk assessment (Schwab, 2007). A risk assessment informs of the hazards that communities face, in turn it aids in choosing the most appropriate mitigation and preparedness strategies to become more community resilient. Through a mitigation plan, the information obtained during the risk assessment can be utilized to protect existing buildings and to retrofit older buildings against hazard impacts or guide future developments, on land that is not yet developed, in keeping people and properties out of hazardous prone areas (Schwab, 2016).
There are no two towns, counties, or local communities that will have identical risk assessments; however, there are steps that are common to all hazard risk assessments. First step of a risk assessment is identifying hazards, which ask the question “What kinds of hazards can affect the community?” Identifying the hazards involves listing all that might occur in the local region and providing a description of each one (Schwab, 2016). Second step is profiling hazards, which ask the question “What is the potential impact of the identified hazards on the community?” Profiling hazards helps in determining how each affect the community, how often they may occur, and where they might take place (Schwab, 2016). Third step is inventorying vulnerable assets and populations, which ask the question “What will be affected by the hazard event?” This step will determine the number of people and amount of existing assets that are at risk from the hazards that were identified (Schwab, 2016). Fourth step is estimating potential losses, which answers the question “What could the community lose in a hazard event?” This helps indicate how the community could be impacted economically (Schwab, 2016). Fifth step is describing future land use and development, which raises the question “What people and property will be at risk from hazards in the future if growth and development continue?” This step allows mitigation strategies to be formed to help foster change where future developments that might occur in hazard risk areas. Lastly, the sixth step is forming conclusions which are based on the data collected and the analysis conducted (Schwab, 2016).
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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