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Description/Paper InstructionsHealthy People 2020 Discussion Essay Assignment

Healthy People 2020

Introduction

Hypothesis testing is used to understand the effect of an assumption done on sample data from a larger populace (Donnarumma, Costantini, Ambrosini, Friston & Pezzulo 2017). The test tells the analyst if his central hypothesis is correct or not. Statistical experts test hypotheses through evaluating and examining a random population sample being analyzed. A Z- test is used when comparing two populations mean if they are considerably different from each other or relate if a single community mean, is diverse from a standard value. Currently, we are still working on the objectives of Healthy People 2020. Since according to CDC statistics, over 10% of the US population is diabetic, I opt to work with Diabetes as the topic of choice from the provided website (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). The condition cuts across all ages, racial, and cultural groups. It also qualified for this study since the availed data captures from 1980 to 2017, and simple arithmetic will reveal that it gives a sample size with 38 observations (People, 2020). Since that is more than 30, it qualifies to be a large dataset, and would, therefore, fit z-test. In a bid to accurately answer the availed questions on hypothesis testing and understand the selected diabetes data, there is a need to formulate a guiding research question where we will identify the problem and other steps will follow.

Research Question

In every statistical test, there must be a research question that will help in identifying the issue of concern. It is what outlines the researcher’s claim, which gives room for challenging the same to test whether it is wrong or right. The above is known as the significance concept, and it helps in determining whether the researcher employed a quality data source (Gallo, 2016).

Suppose Healthy People 2020 claims that the average diabetes percentage in the country is 7.2, we can test that the average diabetes percentage in the country is different from 7.2 using CDC data from 1980 to 2017, where n= 38, and level of significance is 0.05.

Hypothesis Testing Steps

Problem Identification

Every statistical test starts with problem identification, which comes from the research question. It is the primary issue that the item needs to answer. In the above scenario, for example, the interest parameter is the average diabetes percentage in the country. Identifying the problem helps in narrowing down the specific tests to follow. The focus of this study is to determine whether the average diabetes percentage is 7.2.

Stating Hypotheses

In this section, we have to determine both the null and alternatives hypothesis by incorporating the right signs based on the provided research question.

Step 1: Null hypothesis

By definition, this is the supposition that represents the researcher’s claim. It is the reason why the study holds since we have to confirm if significance, by rejecting or failing to reject it. H0 is the denotation of the null hypothesis, as shown below (Corty, 2016).

H0: µ = µ0 = the researcher’s claim

Similarly, H1: µ = µ0 = 7.2

Step 2: Alternatives hypothesis

By definition, this section of the hypothesis is what questions the statistical significance of the researcher’s claims. It provides grounds for rejecting the null theory, based on the sign it employs. It adopts the sign H1 or Ha (Gallo, 2016). In the above case, we are testing the Healthy People 2020’s claim, which we can summarize as shown below.

H1: µ ? µ0 ? the researcher’s claim

Using the provided scenario, we can rewrite the above as follows;

H1: µ ? 7.2

Step 3: Setting the alpha, ?

The standard alpha level is 0.05, and it is the possibility of committing a type 1 error. We also have to note the sample size and level of significance for the test, which is n = 38.

Based on the above two-tailed test, the critical value is given as;

Z critical value, Z?/2 = Z0.025 = 1.96.

Step 4: Test Statistics

The next step in hypothesis testing after identifying the appropriate hypothesis is the test statistics. In this case, it is the calculated or empirical z-value defined by the formula below.

Z = (?- µ) divide by delta over sqrt n,

Where;

? is the sample mean, µ is the population mean, is the known sample standard deviation, and n is the sample size (Corty, 2016).

We can use the above scenario, from the research question to calculate Z statistics. From the selected sample ? = 5.863, µ = 7.2, while delta = 1.976, and n = 38.

Z = (5.863 – 7.2) divide by 1.976 over sqrt 38 = -4.17

Step 5: The Rejection Region

In simple terms, it is the criteria for rejecting the researcher’s claim, which is the null theory. In making the right criteria, it is vital to understand the tail of the alternative supposition because it helps in the decision-making process. In statistics, we have one and two tail, where one tail is either left or right tail. The next section indicates the rejection procedure based on the type of tail in the alternative theory.

Reject H0 when Z ? – Z? or when Z ? Z? for left and right tail alternatives, respectively.

Bu reject H0 when Z ? – Z?/2 or when Z ? Z?/2, for a two tailed test (Corty, 2016).

In the provided scenario, we can demonstrate this, and since our test is two-tailed, we can proceed as follows;

The Z critical value, Z?/2 = Z0.025 = 1.96.

We can use the normal distribution to represent the above value and show the rejection region.

Therefore, we compare this with the Z-statics using the above, and reject H0 if -4.17 ? -1.96 or -4.17 ? 1.96.

Step 6: Decision-Making and Conclusion

Since it is precise that the Z-statistic value falls in the acceptance region, we would fail to reject H0 at the 0.05 level of significance (Corty, 2016). It further implies that we are will not reject the claim made by the Healthy People 2020’s report on the average diabetes percentage in the country. It means that, on average, the annual diabetes percentage in the US is 7.2, and it is significant at the 95% level (Gallo, 2016).

Excel Output

The table below shows the z-test for one sample mean for the same data used in the manual calculation of the hypothesis test. While in the above sections, we were indicating a step by step procedure, the output confirms the accuracy of our findings or calculations (Smith, 2016).

RUBRIC

QUALITY OF RESPONSENO RESPONSEPOOR / UNSATISFACTORYSATISFACTORYGOODEXCELLENTC ontent (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking.30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking.40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete.50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing.Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points).Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper.5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6^{th}Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper.10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6^{th}Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources.15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources.20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6^{th}Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment.Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage.20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free.Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points)Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6^{th}edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6^{th}edition requirements whatsoever.5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6^{th}edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment.10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6^{th}edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.## GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER

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