Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
SCH4U0 – Unit 1 Lab: Determining the Enthalpy of Reaction
In this lab, you will examine 2 reactions. The first reaction is between Magnesium Metal and Hydrochloric Acid, and the second reaction is the dissolution (dissolving) of the compound ammonium chloride. Using a coffee-cup calorimeter, you will conduct the reaction, examine the quantities of the reactants and stoichiometry, and then you will also determine the enthalpy change for the reaction.
Part 1: Pre-Lab Questions
- For part 1 of your experiment, you will be reacting 1.00g of Mg with 100.0mL of 1.0mol/L of HCl(aq). Calculate the number of moles of each of the reactants used in the experiment.
- For part 2 of your experiment, you will be dissolving 1.00g of NH4Cl in 25.0mL water. Calculate the number of moles in NH4Cl.
- Draw a basic diagram of a calorimeter. When conducting chemical reactions involving heat & enthalpy, why is it important that we use a calorimeter to run the reaction? Why can’t we do the reaction in an open beaker?
- In the reaction of Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid, explain why magnesium is able to displace Hydrogen in the reaction.
- In part 2 of this lab, you will dissolve an ionic salt in water. What makes an ionic compound (like ammonium chloride) soluble? Why are some salts insoluble?
- To determine how the initial (given) quantities of the reactants affect the quantities of the products
- To determine the heat transfer involved in the reaction between Mg and HCl.
- To determine the heat transfer involved in the dissolving of NH4Cl
- To covert the heat transfer into an enthalpy of reaction ∆Hrxn
Balance Magnesium Metal Strip Stirring Rod
Coffee Cup Calorimeter Hydrochloric Acid (1.0mol/L) Ammonium Chloride Salt
Thermometer Funnel 50mL Graduated Cylinder
Goggles Sand Paper
Procedure: Make a lab-doodle (or flow-chart) to summarize the procedure in your lab report
- Obtain a strip of Magnesium metal. Take the mass of the magnesium metal and record the exact mass (should be close to 1.00g).
- Using the sand paper, sand down the Magnesium metal to remove any impurities
- Using a funnel and graduated cylinder, carefully measure 100.0mL of the 1.0mol/L HCl(aq)
- Transfer the HCl(aq) into your coffee cup calorimeter.
- Using the thermometer, take the initial temperature of the HCl(aq) solution. Record the temperature.
- Add the 1.00g strip of Mg(s) into your coffee cup calorimeter
- Apply the lid to the calorimeter. Allow the reaction to run and measure the maximum temperature reached by the reaction.
- When the reaction is complete, pour the contents of the calorimeter into the waste bin and rinse your calorimeter. You will know that the reaction is complete when the Mg completely “dissolves”
- Repeat the experiment using 1.00g of NH4Cl (measured on the scale) and 25mL water (measured with a graduated cylinder).
- Use the stirring rod to dissolve the salt if necessary.
Create an observation table (or tables) to record quantitative data you capture in this experiment.
- Write the balanced chemical equation for Reaction 1. Calculate the Limiting Reactant and Excess Reactant for Reaction 1 (Mg + HCl). Using your calculations, determine the mass of Hydrogen gas produced.
- Based only on your qualitative observations (ignoring the calculations from question 1), how can you tell which reactant is limiting and which reactant is excess? Why?
- Why is it not necessary to calculate the limiting reactant/excess reactant in Reaction 2 (Ammonium Chloride)?
- From your data, calculate the following for each part of the experiment. (make sure it is organized )
- The temperature changes of the water
- The mass of the water
- The quantity of heat absorbed (or given off) by the water during the dissolving, given that specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g oC
- The number of moles of solid used
- The quantity of heat involved per mole of solid dissolved (value from part c divided by value from part d). This is called the molar enthalpy of solution ∆Hrxn. Assign a positive or negative sign to ∆Hrxndepending in whether you think the dissolving process was exothermic or endothermic.
- Write a thermochemical equation for the dissolving process for each solid (include the heat term in each equation).
- Magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium chloride, MgCl2, are very similar, white ionic solids with the following properties:
Compound Melting Point (oC) Solubility MgO 2800 Insoluble MgCl2 1412 Very soluble
- Give the formula of the ions of each compound
- Account for the drastic difference in physical properties
- The value of ∆Hrxn for the formation of an acetone – water solution is negative. Explain this in general terms that discuss intermolecular forces of attraction.
- Write a mathematical equation that shows the relationship between ∆Hrxn, Q (heat) and n (moles).
- Discuss 2 experimental sources of error that occurred in this experiment.
Lab Report Submission Details:
- Lab Report –Doodle or flow-chart of the Procedure, Observations Table(s), Analysis Questions, and Conclusion
- Lab report is due on: _Tues Feb 15, 2022
RUBRIC is posted in D2L Dropbox.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. 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The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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