Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Writing a Lab Report Instructions
To write a successful scientific report you need to be clear about what you are trying to achieve. The main purpose of a scientific report is to communicate the finding from the work and to help the reader to understand them. The report should include a record of the process used to establish the findings, so they can be reproduced at a later stage for validation. It should be written as an independent record that can be read without further input from the author.
This document describes a general format for Lab Reports that you can adapt as needed.
What makes a good lab report? A good lab report does more than present data; it demonstrates the writer’s comprehension of the concepts behind the data. Merely recording the expected and observed results is not sufficient; you should also identify how and why differences occurred, explain how they affected your experiment, and show your understanding of the principles the experiment was designed to examine.
Title: A descriptive, self-explanatory title. The title must be specific and allow the reader to know exactly what you are studying.
- Bad examples: “Choosing the best mouthwash” or “Which concentration kills more bacteria” are vague: they fail to describe what substances you used, what “best” means, how many different solutions or chemicals were tested, or what bacterial strains were used to conduct the experiment.
- Good examples: would be “The effects of three different brands of mouthwash on the growth of S. aureus.”; or “Effect of light with three different wavelengths on photosynthetic rate.”
- Great example: The main conclusion of your research is used as a title, for example, “Listerine mouthwash inhibits growth of S. aureus more effectively than Scope.”
Abstract: A concise summary of the paper’s content. This should include the question investigated/purpose of experiment, experimental design, major findings, and conclusions (significance of these findings). The abstract often also includes a brief reference to theory or methodology. The information should clearly enable readers to decide whether they need to read your whole report.
This experiment examined the effect of line orientation and arrowhead angle on a subject’s ability to perceive line length, thereby testing the Müller-Lyer illusion. The Müller-Lyer illusion is the classic visual illustration of the effect of the surrounding on the perceived length of a line. The test was to determine the point of subjective equality by having subjects adjust line segments to equal the length of a standard line. Twenty-three subjects were tested in a repeated measures design with four different arrowhead angles and four-line orientations. Each condition was tested in six randomized trials. The lines to be adjusted were tipped with outward pointing arrows of varying degrees of pointedness, whereas the standard lines had inward pointing arrows of the same degree. Results showed that line lengths were overestimated in all cases. The size of error increased with decreasing arrowhead angles. For line orientation, overestimation was greatest when the lines were horizontal. This last is contrary to our expectations. Further, the two factors functioned independently in their effects on subjects’ point of subjective equality. These results have important implications for human factors design applications such as graphical display interfaces.
The Introduction: is more narrowly focused than the abstract. It establishes the context of your experiment, including citations from primary literature.
- Background information on your system should be included here.
- How: Select the two or three key concepts related to your experiment (usually your dependent and independent variables) and briefly explain them. For example, if your experiment involves enzymatic reactions and temperature, you should briefly describe enzymes, how they work, and what can affect their function. Then explain the consequences of changing the environmental conditions of the reaction, and finally focus on the effect of temperature.
- Clearly state your hypothesis/hypotheses and predictions.
- In the last 2 or 3 sentences of your introduction, state your hypothesis/hypotheses, which should portray the relationship you expect to find between the independent and dependent variables.
Note: Do not repeat the lab manual. Show your own comprehension of the problem.
Materials and Methods: Describe the experimental design concisely and in such a way that another researcher could re-create it.
In paragraph form, you need to explain the materials you used in the lab and also describe the experimental procedures performed to obtain your data. Use the past tense. You must be specific (give exact measurements, volumes, times, etc.), but at the same time be brief and include only details that are necessary if someone were to replicate the experiment.
Results: Summarize your data, using tables and figures (graphs) when appropriate. Only present your results here (i.e., the outcome of your experiment), save any interpretation for the Discussion
This section should contain at least one paragraph (no more than 5 sentences) describing your most significant findings, followed by a graph or table that shows your data. Always refer to your table or graph in the text by citing it at the end of the sentence or using parentheses, for example “see Figure 1” or “see Table 3 below” or “(Figure 2).” Remember that your figures must have descriptive legends below them, and tables are to be identified by titles at the top. Never include raw data. Do not begin your sentences with “Figure 2 shows….” Keep in mind that you must describe the data – not the figure, graph, or table.
If you use a calculation, provide a sample calculation in the report.
Never include raw data in your report.
The Discussion is the most important part of your report, because here, you show that you understand the experiment beyond the simple level of completing it. Explain. Analyze. Interpret.
Discussion: Interpret your results, highlighting any patterns you observed. Discuss your results in
the context of the subject of your investigation. Be sure to revisit your hypothesis and predictions
In your first sentence, state whether or not the data support your hypothesis. Then interpret your results in relation to the background information. Do not repeat what you stated in the Results section; instead compare your findings to those published in the scientific literature. These may support (or not) your findings. For example, if you were testing salt concentration and its relationship to product formation in an enzymatic reaction, you should search publications in which the authors describe the effects of different salt concentrations on the enzymatic activity of similar enzymes.
How to answer the following question: “What is the significance or meaning of the results?” To answer this question, use both aspects of discussion, a) Analysis and b) Interpretation.
- a) Analysis: What do the results indicate clearly? What have you found? Explain what you know with certainty based on your results and draw conclusions:
Since none of the samples reacted to the Silver foil test, sulfide, if present at all, does not exceed a concentration of approximately 0.025 g/l. It is therefore unlikely that the water main pipe break was the result of sulfide-induced corrosion.
- b) Interpretation: What is the significance of the results? What ambiguities exist? What questions might we raise? Find logical explanations for problems in the data:
Although the water samples were received on 14 August 2000, testing could not be started until 10 September 2000. It is normally desirably to test as quickly as possible after sampling in order to avoid potential sample contamination. The effect of the delay is unknown.
More particularly, focus your discussion with strategies like these:
- I) Compare expected results with those obtained: If there were differences, how can your account for them? Saying “human error” implies you’re incompetent. Be specific; for example, the instruments could not measure precisely, the sample was not pure or was contaminated, or calculated values did not take account of friction.
- ii) Analyze experimental error: Was it avoidable? Was it a result of equipment? If an experiment was within the tolerances, you can still account for the difference from the ideal. If the flaws result from the experimental design explain how the design might be improved.
iii) Explain your results in terms of theoretical issues: Often undergraduate labs are intended to illustrate important physical laws, such as Kirchhoff’s voltage law, or the Müller-Lyer illusion. Usually, you will have discussed these in the introduction. In this section move from the results to the theory. How well has the theory been illustrated?
- iv) Relate results to your experimental objective(s): If you set out to identify an unknown metal by finding its lattice parameter and its atomic structure, you’d better know the metal and its attributes.
- v) Compare your results to similar investigations: In some cases, it is legitimate to compare outcomes with classmates, not to change your answer, but to look for any anomalies between the groups and discuss those.
- vi) Analyze the strengths and limitations of your experimental design: This is particularly useful if you designed the thing you’re testing (e.g. a circuit).
- The last statement, in conclusion, simply state what you know now for sure, as a result of the lab:
Example. In conclusion, the Debye-Sherer method identified the sample material as nickel due to the measured crystal structure (feck) and atomic radius (approximately 0.124nm).
A list of the references you used to write your paper. If you include a reference
here, you must also cite it in-text. APA format is the correct format to use.
List the references and the sources you cited in your text following the author–year format. Include a list of your references at the end of the document. You must use the proper format for in-text citations and references. In the Literature Cited section of your report, include all authors’ last names and initials, year of publication, and full title of the paper, article, or book. For journal articles, you must list the journal name (abbreviated form is fine), volume, issue number if available, and inclusive pages. Books must be identified by publisher, place of publication, and inclusive pages.
At minimum, you should have three references: one for your background information and two for your discussion.
Format: Please use the format document on Canvas.
Make your report consistent. If your title reads “Effect of mouthwash alcohol concentration on E. coli growth,” you are stating your dependent (growth) and independent (alcohol concentration) variables. Your hypothesis should reflect that you expect these variables to interact. Your graph must have “Average diameter of growth inhibition” on the y-axis and “Alcohol concentration” on the x-axis, along with the corresponding units for these measurements or calculations in parentheses. Since concentration is a continuous variable, you should have a line graph. This is what it means to be consistent. Your narrative and research of the literature should also relate directly to these general themes.
Keep in mind that scientific writing is conventional, uses only established abbreviations, and should be clear, concise, and accurate. In addition, scientific writing uses formal language, avoids quotations, and is objective. Write with your audience in mind (college freshman level).
Reminder: 3rd person (The students/ you/ I… etc. should not be used)
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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