Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
In an experiment, one of the most important things a researcher must focus on is the principle of validity, or the assurance that the research is actually studying what it was intended to study (Myers & Hansen, 2012). When setting up an experiment, there are two forms of validity in particular that the researcher must focus one. Firstly, the researcher must focus on internal validity. This type of validity is concerned with the assurance that the changes that were measured in the dependent variable (DV) were actually caused by the manipulation of the independent variable (IV) and not caused by any other types of extraneous variables (EV). Secondly, researchers must be concerned with their study’s external validity. External validity refers to how well the results of the study generalize to the population of interest from which the sample was pulled (Myers & Hansen, 2012). When setting up an experiment, there are several ways in which the researcher can increase both of these validity types.
For internal validity, one of the main concerns is the study’s amount of control. Control refers to the number of safeguards that were put in place in order to control for EV’s, or variables other than the IV that may have influenced or changed, the DV (Myers & Hansen, 2012). The best time to plan for these controls is during the set up of the experimental procedures. For example, researchers should ensure that they have properly defined their variables, properly set up their measuring techniques, and included enough levels of the IV to properly test their hypothesis. Additionally, in order to control for EV’s caused by subject variables, or individual differences between subjects, researchers should ensure they utilize random assignment (Myers & Hansen, 2012). Researchers can also choose to measure their internal validity after their study is over. For example, researchers can provide questionnaires, or surveys, to their subjects after the study concludes in order to investigate how the subject felt during the examination, or if they were confused during the study. These are important factors to look at as these could introduce possible EVs into the study that may have resulted in the measured behaviors (Myers & Hansen, 2012).
As mentioned above, the primary concern for external validity is the generalizability of the identified experimental results (Myers & Hansen, 2012). External validity has a type of double-edged sword type of relationship with the previously discussed principle of internal validity. For example, as internal validity increases with the number of controls put in place, external validity decreases with large amounts of controls as it is thought to limit realistic behavior. There are several ways in which research can increase their studies external validity. For example, researchers can use the principle of aggregation, or the grouping together of data, subjects, stimulus, or trials (Myers & Hansen, 2012). The idea behind this is that by aggregating these factors, they are generalizing the behaviors over a wide range of subjects, stimuli, and occasions. This provides for the most realistic measure of behavior. Additionally, researchers can choose to incorporate multivariate designs, or designs that include multiple dependent variables (Myers & Hansen, 2012). The idea behind multivariate designs is that rarely do behaviors exist independently. By measuring multiple DVs, or behaviors, researchers can gather a more accurate representation of how the manipulated IV actually impacted behavior. Lastly, researchers can maximize external validity by designing experiments to minimize reactivity, or the tendency for subjects to change their behavior when they feel as though they are being watched (Myers & Hansen, 2012). It is a major belief that lab settings, or settings in which the behavior is overly controlled, does not elicit realistic behaviors. With that in mind, researchers often try to maximize the measure of behavior in more natural settings such as in field experiments or in naturalistic observations (Myers & Hansen, 2012).
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER
Do You Have Any Other Essay/Assignment/Class Project/Homework Related to this? Click Here Now [CLICK ME] and Have It Done by Our PhD Qualified Writers!!